Rose Ausländer was born in Bucovina, on what is now the Romanian/Ukrainian border. Her first book of poems in German, The Rainbow, was published in Bucharest in 1939, with the majority of its print run destroyed during Nazi occupation. In the Chernivtsi ghetto she became friends with Paul Celan; the pair would meet again in Paris in 1957. Her second collection, Blind Summer, appeared in 1965. Rose died in Düsseldorf in 1988.